It would be fairly naïve to assume that I could easily master a new language, with a totally different linguistic system, at the ripe old age of thirty something without lots of trial and masses of error. If I was limited further by being exposed to my new language only once a day, with selected people and practicing only how to talk about the weather I’d probably decide it wasn’t worth the hassle.
Children who have motor difficulties that impact on their speech development are often limited in their opportunities to play and interact in different ways of their choosing. This has widely been discussed in previous research (see Bedrosian, 1997; Blockberger & Sutton, 2003). They are also likely to be introduced to other ways of talking much later than if they were to have developed natural speech, constantly playing ‘catch up’, with language systems that are challenging to learn. Light and Lindsey demonstrated this, back in 1991, when exploring the mismatch between young children’s developmental levels and AAC technologies that were available at the time. Those endless opportunities for children to graze their knees (in a metaphorical and literal sense) were just not there then, and still not present today.
We know that some children understand, develop and learn differently and this isn’t always in a step-wise, developmental way. Language disorder implies a varied pattern of strengths that doesn’t correspond to developmental norms. This means that all children will not necessarily learn the same pattern at a delayed rate. Similarly, as a neurotypical adult, I am unable to empathise with the sensory and emotive occurrences that some children experience. This means, I am constantly missing opportunities to support children to frame and share these experiences with others.
What’s the goal?
We can’t expect that all children will play the piano, if they prefer the drums
If we’re going to begin to give a child a fighting chance of learning to use their AAC technology, perhaps we ought to start digging deeper. What does the child actually want to use it for? What are they currently expressing? Is this very different to what they have currently have available to them?
Often, as language specialists it’s no surprise that we choose to focus on training children to use their AAC to ‘transmit language’ (like telling a joke, answering dad’s question or expressing a dislike of broccoli). This might be completely acceptable and appropriate for them, just as long as their goal is not different to ours. But what happens if the goal for that child is to use their device to enhance their social image or self esteem? Interestingly, Light, Page, Curran & Pitkin (2007) showed that children who were involved in their study of designing devices for other children who used AAC said their friends would prefer devices that had varied functions, not just confined to verbal language.
In reflecting on my clinical work, I can’t help but ask why then am I bound by language development if I know that children follow different trajectories? Should I continue gradually working through the continuum of introducing real objects, before photos, symbols and written words? What happens if we happen to stick with symbols for extended periods? Are we hindering opportunities for supporting literacy development or other forms of expressive communication?
Lots of questions but food for thought, I guess.
Bedrosian, J. (1997). Language acquisition in young AAC system users: Issues and directions for future research. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 13, 179-185.
Blockberger, S., & Sutton, A. (2003). Toward linguistic competence: Language experience and knowledge of children with extremely limited speech. In J. Light, D. Beukelman, & J. Reichle (Eds.), Communicative competence for people who use AAC: From research to effective practice (pp. 63–106). Baltimore, MD: Brookes
Light, J., & Lindsay, P. (1991). Cognitive science and augmentative and alternative communication. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, Vol. 7, pp. 186-203
Light, J., Page, R., Curran, J., & Pitkin, L. (2007). Children’s ideas for the design of AAC assistive technologies for young children with complex communication needs. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 23, 1-14.
Disclaimer: The author of this blog post has no particular preference for pianos or drums and does not assume that either is more appealing than the other.